How people try (but fail) to spot a lie

Can you tell when someone is lying?你在寻找什么线索可能会泄露给他们?在今年伦敦的斯波顿活动上,Chris Street展示了一个互动演示,展示了如何发现谎言是多么困难,以及我们如何将明显的视觉线索与谎言联系起来,simply don't exist.

多大的骗子啊

在我们开始思考如何发现谎言之前,金宝搏体育we need to know a little 金宝搏体育about how the people around us actually lie.研究人员给人们写日记,让他们记录下24小时内他们所说的谎言和真相。What has been found across studies is that people tell the truth far more often than they lie.

这是有意义的——语言的一般目的是将我们头脑中的东西传达给另一个人,而对我们所想的事情的真实描述是最好的。有时候我们会捏造细节或者直接撒谎,但这是个例外,不是规则。我们需要牢记这一点。

说谎者和说真话的人之间的差别非常小,而且很少被发现。

How 金宝搏体育about the behavior of a liar?When people think 金宝搏体育about liars,他们倾向于列出可能会让说谎者远离的行为——可见的行为。但是匹诺曹的鼻子不存在。我们太善于撒谎了。Yes,even you.If (or when) you lie,你不会隐藏你的嘴或避免在眼睛里看那个人。

故事不那么令人信服,perhaps,but out of 100 lies you can expect around three to seven of them to be less convincing than a truth.说谎者和说真话的人之间的差别非常小,而且很少被发现。

事实上,在我们的研究中,我们发现人们是相当熟练的说谎者。在一项研究中,参加者认为他们正在参与研究解决数学问题时人体如何摇摆。这个前提允许我们把他们放进一套动作捕捉服,并记录他们的行为。

参与者认为他们正在参加一项研究,研究人们在解决数学问题时身体如何摇摆。
Chris Street

他们受到了一个相当刻薄和严格的研究人员(你的真的)和一个友好和愉快的研究助理的欢迎。当研究人员离开房间时,the research assistant ‘accidentally' knocked a laptop onto the floor,打破它。当研究者回来时,他问参与者是否看到了发生的事情。

金宝搏体育About half of the participants lied to protect the friendly research assistant from the potential wrath of the mean researcher (I'm quite a nice person really,我发誓!).另一半说的是实话,告诉我们是助理不小心弄坏的。

我们最初发现,说谎者的动作较少,而不是身体的任何特定部位,but overall.有趣的是,它们看起来不像是“车灯里的兔子”。Although they moved less,与讲真话的人相比,这种行为的模式没有那么有规律。他似乎进入了一种重复的运动模式。

It suggests that liars were controlling how they displayed their behavior to meet the demands of the task on the fly,while truth-tellers produced a more habitual and unconsidered set of behaviors.

If you are starting to think that spotting a lie is not going to be an easy task,you would be right.

Trying to spot a lie

如果实际上没有可用的信息,当必须决定某人是否在说谎时,我们该怎么做?It turns out that we are highly inaccurate,准确率只比几率稍高。尽管我们的表现不佳,自适应测谎理论,or ALIED,认为我们的战略是明智的。

It begins by claiming we look for clues that are directly and causally related to the statement being made by the speaker,which are called ‘individuating cues'.For instance,如果我声称上周去过威尔士,一个个性化的暗示可能是我表现出来的言语或非言语行为,but it could also be a claim from a third party who corroborates my story,or any other information that directly relates to this statement.

不幸的是,these cues are rarely present – remember that people are good liars and give little away.To compensate,Alied认为人们使用的信息是跨语句概括的,称为“上下文常规信息”。As an example,你可能还记得,人们往往说真话比说谎更频繁。This does not tell you that my specific statement was the truth,但它给出了一个迹象,表明一个事实在一般情况下被观察的可能性有多大。This allows us to fill in for the lack of more reliable individuating cues and to make an ‘educated guess'.It is this flexibility in the information being used and the functionality of adapting to the situation that gives the theory its name.

Alied认为人们不一定容易出错,然后,but rather are using sensible strategies.The low accuracy results from the lack of reliable clues available in the environment.如果我们想提高测谎精度,we need to develop methods that generate these individuating cues.That may mean encouraging speakers to include details that can be verified with documents (e.g.,报销时提交收据)。

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