Myth:Decreased smoking rates have had no impact on incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)
Fact:Between1974年至1999年, there was a decrease in oral cavity, laryngeal, and hypopharyngeal cancers in the United States. This was largely attributed to a decreasing incidence in smoking. Notably, there was无显著差异in the incidence of nasopharyngeal cancers and there has been an增加in the incidence oforopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma(OPSCC). The增加in OPSCC has been attributed to thehuman papilloma virus(HPV).
Myth:与人类乳头瘤病毒疫苗接种的发展ncidence of HPV-positive OPSCC is declining
Fact:该incidence of HPV-positive OPSCC is升起。该re has been an astounding increase of228%1988年和2004年之间在OPSCC美国据估计，HPV相关OPSCC包含约金宝搏体育70%的cases of OPSCC. Furthermore, between 2002 and 2012, the rate of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer increased by2.5％per year (p值< .0001). The rising rate of HPV-positive HNSCC extends beyond the United States, with the literature showing that the incidence of HPV-positive cancers is alsogrowing in Korea。In fact, HPV-associated OPSCC is估计超过子宫颈癌如在明年中最常见的HPV相关癌症。
Fact:Men are 2.8 to 5 timesmorelikelythan womento haveHPV阳性OPSCC。该discrepancybetween men and women is thought to be in part related tosexual behaviorvariation. Men were found to havemorelifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners, which has been associated with the development of OPSCC. The variation in incidence of HPV-positive OPSCC between men and women could also be attributed to the lagging HPV vaccination recommendations for men. TheHPV疫苗获得批准for girls in 2006, however it was not approved for boys until 2009.
Fact:Smokeless tobacco does carry an increased risk of development of HNSCC. The incidence of HNSCC associated with smokeless tobacco varies based on regional prevalence of smokeless tobacco use. InIndia, more than50％的oral cancers in men and women were attributed to the use ofsmokeless tobacco products。从印度的一项多中心病例对照研究显示，有一个增加in hypopharyngeal cancers in never smokers but not laryngeal cancers. InSudan and the US，68％，男性口腔癌的4％分别归因于无烟烟草使用。另一项研究评估betel quid use从巴基斯坦即使在调整了吸烟后显示，口腔癌的风险增加了类似。
Myth:Alcohol does not have an independent impact on the risk of developing HNSCC
Fact:Alcohol does have an independent effect on the risk of developing HNSCC. Alcohol consumed at high frequency (greater than or equal to three drinks per day) is associated with a2-fold increasein the likelihood of developing head and neck cancer compared to never drinkers. There is a倍增效应的alcohol and tobacco use在头颈部鳞癌的发展。谁消耗84克/乙醇天和每天10支香烟的人在35倍增加d risk的developing HNSCC compared to never drinkers and never smokers.